Has it ever occurred to you that dogs might have preferences based on the breed of other dogs? Or are they all just dogs to them? Read on and you’ll find out.
Dogs are relatively intelligent, with complex personalities, so the answer isn’t completely “yes” or “no.
The simple answer is no, in the general case dogs can recognize other dogs, but don’t show preference for certain breeds. This has been tested with simple visual identification: Dogs recognize the dog species among several other species on a computer screen. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130214103703.htm
The complicated answer is closer to “yes”, because the size and behavior of the other dogs will be relevant to their social dynamic. Also, dogs may respond to certain smells or visual cues that correspond to various breeds depending on that dog’s personal experience; Paedomorphosis affects agonistic visual signals of domestic dogs. (In fact there is a study called “Paedomorphosis affects agonistic visual signals of domestic dogs. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000334729690370X).
In addition to that, the instinctive methods of communication may be slightly different between breeds.
So while dogs don’t necessarily prefer one breed over others, the morphology and psychology inherent to different breeds will affect how they treat different dogs. In addition, they can make positive or negative associations that correlate to those breeds.